The following extract conveys but a faint idea of the hardships suffered by the troops on this occasion:

As their march was considered indispensable, their sufferings were unavoidable. The guns, equipage, and baggage were continually falling in the rear; and every comfort, at the time most necessary, was entirely wanting. Under the same circumstances, in Europe, cover of some description would be found in towns and villages; but in India, if the tents are detained in the rear, the troops necessarily remain exposed. Nor ill there any remedy, as the villages are small, the houses incapable of containing more than their proper inhabitants, and large public edifices are nowhere existing to supply the deficiency.

It sometimes happened that the troops were exposed for twenty-four hours to incessant rain without any covering whatever. After frequent delays and difficulties, the division encamped in the neighbourhood of EIIichapoor on the 3d September, but in such a state as to be rendered totally unfit to proceed any further in the prosecution of the march to Nagpore. Here the force remained until the 21st December, when it was again put in motion, and halted at Walkeira on the 30th. At this place the division was joined by a wing of his Majesty's 30th regiment from Hydrabad, to relieve the five companies of this battalion, in consequence of their long servitude in the field; which relief accordingly took place the next day, when they commenced their march in the direction of Jaulnah. However, the day after their arrival at that place, an order was received from General Doveton, countermanding the march to the Deckan, and directing the five companies to proceed to Boorhaunpoor, in charge of a battering train, which at that time lay at Jaulnah, consisting of seven 18-pounders and two 12-pounders, one 10-inch, three 8-inch, and one 5~inch mortars, with a large supply of ammunition, shot, and shells. On the lst March, 1819, they rejoined the Hydrabad division with this train, then encamped near the city of Boorhaunpoor, and two marches from Asseerghur, the siege of which was now to be undertaken; and for that purpose arrangements, on a most extensive scale, were made, every man and gun that were at all available being ordered to march on this celebrated place, which, on account of its strength, was termed the Gibraltar of the East. On the 2nd the division took a position at Neembola, situated about seven miles from Asseerghur. Troops and trains were now coming in from various quarters, eight companies of his Majesty's 67th regiment, with a detail of sappers and miners, and a company of pioneers, joined the division from Candeish on the 9th; and on the 11th the flank companies of the Madras European regiment, and detachments of native cavalry and infantry, with a battering train of four 18-pounders, two 8-inch mortars, two heavy 8-inch howitzers, with a company of foot artillery. On the 17th another train arrived from Hoosingabad, consisting of two 18-pounders and two 12-pounders, and two 5-inch howitzers, with a considerable detachment of native cavalry and infantry.

As there were now abundant means at the General's command to commence his operations against this place, the necessary dispositions were accordingly made for opening the siege by an attack on the pettah of Asseer, a walled village situated immediately under the guns of the fort, and occupied by the enemy. The fortress of Asseerghur is. built upon a detached hill, not commanded by any other in its neighbourhood. It consists of an upper and lower fort; the upper one, of an irregular form, is about 1100 yards from east to west, and about 600 from north to south. It crowns the top of the hill, which is 750 feet in height; and all round it, with the exception of one place which is strongly fortified, there is a perpendicular precipice from 80 to 120 feet, surmounted with a low wall full of loop-holes; below this again are two lines of works, the outer one forming the lower fort, which rises directly above the pettah, and the entrance to which is protected by strong gateways and flanking works. Infinite labour and great skill had been employed in rendering this naturally strong position almost impregnable, and which indeed it might justly be considered if properly defended.

The column of attack selected for the assault of the pettah consisted of the five companies of this battalion under the command of Captain J. Wetherall, the flank companies of his Majesty's 30th regiment under the the command of Captain Powell, and those of the 67th regiment under the command of Brevet-Major Owen, also the flank companies of the Madras European regiment, five companies of a native infantry regiment, and a detail of sappers and miners, the whole commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Fraser of the Royal Scots; the reserve under Major Dalrymple of the 30th regiment, was composed of the remaining three companies of that corps, one company of the 67th, one of the Madras European regiment, nine companies of native infantry, with detachments of native cavalry, and four horse-artillery guns. At the same time that the pettah was to be attacked in one quarter by this party, another was ordered from Sir J. Malcolm's division (which had taken up a position in the neighbourhood of Asseer a few days before) to act in concert with it. The General's object in gaining possession of the pettah, was to be enabled to establish batteries in the immediate vicinity of the lower fort for the purpose of breaching its walls, destroying its defences, and driving the enemy into the upper one.

The 18th March was the day fixed for the assault, and in recording this part of the services of the second battalion, it is only an act of justice to state that such was the soldier-like feeling and esprit de corps of the men (after they were made acquainted, by the commanding officer, with the duty that lay before them) that on their falling in with their companies in the camp, at Neembolah, at twelve o'clock on the night of the 17th, there was not one individual, amongst them in the least intoxicated, although nearly two-thirds of them were " sons of St. Patrick" This is saying a great deal, for in no part of the world is drunkenness, unfortunately, carried to a greater excess by the British soldier than in India, where the facility of procuring spirits is so great that the most abstemious men are too often converted into drunkards.

Between one and two o'clock in the morning the column commenced its march for Asseer, and advanced up the bed of a deep nullahe, which admitted of an unobserved and near approach to the pettah, and when the assaulting party had arrived within about five hundred yards of the enemy's position, an order was given for a rush upon the gate of the pettah, which was done with the greatest ardour and steadiness at double time, the five companies of the Royal Scots leading the way. Such was the impetuosity of the attack that the enemy were taken completely by surprise, and after an ineffectual discharge at the column, of a few rounds of grape shot from some small guns they had in battery close to the gate, they retired without making any further opposition there. The gate was soon forced open by the head of the column, which immediately proceeding up the main street came upon an advanced picquet of the enemy, which retreated to the lower fort. firing occasionally at the head of the column, which by directions of the Deputy Quarter-Master General, who acted as a guide on the occasion, pursued them close under the walls of the place from which an incessant fire of matchlocks was now kept up, as well as from the guns of the upper fort, from which were also discharged a number of ill-directed rockets. Only a few of the leading sections of the Royal Scots pursued the enemy up the hill, and were afterwards joined by one or two files of the 30th and 67th regiments (who had strayed from their companies), the whole amounting to not more than twenty-five or thirty men the remainder of the companies of the battalion being ordered to other points of attack. As soon as the enemy perceived the small body of men before whom they had so precipitately fled, and being protected by a well directed fire from the forts, they immediately rallied and came down the hill with an augmentation to their numbers, shouting to attack this small party, but were soon successfully repulsed by a spirited charge of the bayonet, which, with a few rounds of musketry. obliged them to retreat, leaving their chief (who was shot by a soldier of the Royal Scots) on the ground, and several of his men. They now retired within their works, some parts of which were within fifty or sixty yards of this handful of men. Major McLeod being wounded was obliged to go to the rear, when he was requested to reinforce, without delay, this party, now nearly reduced to half its numbers, at this advanced position, and which from its proximity to the enemy's works, it otherwise would be impossible to defend. The enemy having soon after this established a cross fire from the walls of the lower fort, and from- two cavaliers upon the party, whose total destruction must have been inevitable under a continuance of it, Captain Wetherall not having received the expected reinforcement saw the necessity of ordering his men to retire from this place to a short distance in rear of it, where a post had been previously established by Colonel Fmser, and where there was some cover for them.

The loss in this little affair was 1 private, killed; Major McLeod, Lieutenant Bland, and 11 rank and file, wounded. This was the only part of the column which suffered in the attack of the pettah, or indeed enconntered any opposition, the remainder of the troops being effectually protected from the enemy's fire by the houses, where they soon established themselves. During the remainder of the day and all night a constant fire was kept up from all directions. where a gun or a matchlock could bear upon the pettah, and where some casualties consequently occurred.

In the course of the day a battery for six light howitzers was completed and directed against the lower fort, but they were of too small a calibre to produce any good effect. Before dark Colonel Fraser took the necessary precautions by establishing picquets in front and on the flanks to guard against any attempt the enemy might make on his position during the night; however, they did nothing more than firing random shots from the upper and lower forts into the pettah. The General having ordered the relief of the assaulting party to take place immediately before day-light on the morning of the 19th, fresh troops marched in from the camp during the night, and on the relief taking place the five companies of this battalion returned to occnpy their tents which were left standing at Neembolah. Lieutenant-Colonel Fraser was ordered to continue in command of the troops in the pettah. On the 19th the firing from the forts still continued, causing some casualties amongst the troops. The engineers of the British force being actively engaged, a heavy gun battery was completed during the night of the 18th, and opened at day-break on the 19th, and by evening had nearly effected a breach in the lower fort, as well as injuring the defences of the upper works. At dusk the enemy made a bold sally from the lower fort upon the pettah, having crept unperceived down a deep ravine which led immediately into the rear of it, and where, from its exposed situation to the enemy's marksmen no look-out sentry had been posted. They had gained the main street, which ran parallel to the works of the fort, when they first encountered the British troops. At this juncture Lieutenant-Colonel Fraser of the Royal Scots, commanding the troops, (whilst in the act of gallantly encouraging the soldiers, and directing them to withhold their fire and give the enemy the bayonet,) received a bullet in the head, from a matchlock, which instantly killed him on the spot ", Shortly after this unfortunate loss the enemy were repulsed and forced to abandon their enterprise, which cannot but be considered as a most daring one.

On the 21st, it being their turn of duty, the five companies of the Royal Scots formed a part of the relief of the European troops in the pettah, where they accordingly took post a little before day-break. As soon as it was day-light the heavy gun battery opened on the forts with great effect, but it had hardly fired a dozen rounds, when from some accident which can never be explained, the magazine in rear of it, containing 130 barrels of gunpowder, exploded killing a conductor of ordnance, a native officer, and 34 non-commissioned officers and rank and file; wounding another native officer, and 65 non-commissioned officers and rank and file -. In the afternoon of this day a mortar battery was completed, and a few shells thrown into the fort to ascertain the range. During the whole of this day, and at times during the night, the enemy kept up a smart fire from the forts, which caused a few casualties. Before day-light on the following morning, the troops in the pettah being relieved, the five companies returned to their tents at Neembolah.

It would be quite unnecessary to swell this record with a detailed account of the operations of this siege, which were conducted with much skill and perseverance. A slight sketch, however, will be given of it. From this period until the 29th several new batteries of heavy guns and mortars had been erected, and a good breach effected in the wall of the lower fort, which, . the enemy finding no longer tenable, abandoned on the 29th, and retired to the upper one. On the morning of the 30th it was taken possession of by a part of Sir J. Malcolm's division, then stationed in the pettah. The occupation of the lower having admitted of making nearer approaches to the upper fort the necessary materials were removed from the batteries, and conveyed there for the purpose of erecting new ones against the upper fort. Previous to this Brigadier-General Doveton's division had left its ground at Neembolah, and occupied a position three miles north-east of Asseerghur, where it continued during the remainder of the siege, and from which it took its share of the various duties in its further prosecution. Several batteries were now constructed, or being so, of heavy breaching guns (24-pounders and 15-pounders), mortars, and howitzers, on elevated and commanding situations: the dragging of ordnance into many of them was only accomplished by the greatest difficulty and the most indefatigable exertions of the European soldiers, who literally worked like horses; and during the whole of the time they were annoyed by a constant fire of matchlocks from the walls of the fort, but which was too distant to prevent the prosecution of this herculean labour, which was performed with that ardour and cheerfulness so characteristic of British soldiers, when necessity demands any extraordinary exertions from them.

On the 31st Brigadier-General Watson., with a part of the Bengal army, consisting of 2200 native troops and twenty-two heavy pieces of ordnance, joined the be. sieging force. These guns were soon placed in battery and opened on the fort. The fire of shot and shells from the numerous British batteries was now constantly kept up. a dozen shells sometimes exploding at the same moment inside the area of the upper fort. A breach was also effected at the outer retaining wall of the only assailable part of the fort, and the fire of two heavy breaching batteries (24-pounders and 15-pounders) was directed against the inner one in order to effect a breach in it also. In this unremitting way was the siege carried on until the 6th of April, when the garrison apprehending the consequences of storming the works, which they now daily expected, forced the Killedar to sue for terms of surrender, which were "liberty to preserve their arms, and to depart with their personal property." But these not being granted hostilities recommenced. At eleven o'clock on the morning of the 8th an order was sent round to all the batteries to cease firing, in consequence of the Killedar having accepted of the terms which had been offered, and agreeing, on his part, to surrender the fort at six o'clock on the morning of the 9th; but as he said he could not answer for the garrison, the control of which he had lost, preparations were made for renewing operations, in case of any refusal on their part; however, at four o'clock on the morning of the 9th, a messenger was sent from the Killedar to report that the garrison was prepared to descend. A union fag, under an escort of one hundred Europeans, and the like number of native infantry, was accordingly sent to the upper fort, and hoisted on the flag-staff, under a royal salute from all the batteries; a guard at the same time taking possession of the gates. The garrison, amounting to 1200 men, marched out at noon and grounded their arms, after sustaining a siege of three weeks. Their loss was inconsiderable, from having such good cover from the fire of the British batteries, being only 43 killed, and 95 wounded; and this was chiefly occasioned by the bursting of shells. That on the side of the besieging army was-1 European officers, 4 native officers, and 95 European, and 213 native non-commissioned officers and rank and file killed and wounded to. Out of this number the five companies of this battalion had only seven rank and file killed and wounded, in addition to the loss on the 18th March.

The whole force of all arms, European and native, assembled against Asseerghur, amounted to about 20,000 men; the ordnance, of all calibre, amounted to 61 guns, and 40 mortars and howitzers; 119 guns and howitzers, of various sizes, were mounted on the works; some of the guns were of immense calibre, one a 384-pounder!

The services of these companies being at last no longer required with the Hydrabad division, they commenced their march towards the Deckan on the morning of the 11th, for the purpose of rejoining the headquarters of the battalion, at that time stationed at Wallajahbad, forty-seven miles from Madras, and which was not finally effected until the 24th July.

Extract of a letter from Brigadier-General Doveton, C.B., to Captain Stewart, Acting Resident at the Court of Doulat Rao Scindea, dated at Camp near Neembolah, 19th March, 1819:- Sir, " Having been desired by the Resident of Nagpore to make known all my future proceedings in the territory of his Highness Doulat Rao Scindea to you, I have the honour to report for the information of the most noble the Governor-General, that having on the 17th instant received a despatch from Brigadier-General Sir J . Malcolm, K.C.B., stating the failure of his attempts to bring Jeswunt~Roa-Lar(the Killedar) to reason, as well as his outrageous conduct on the receipt. of his sovereign's commands, which left no other alternative but having recourse to military means, I issued orders for a combined attack on the pettah of Asseer at the dawn of day the succeeding morning, by detachments - from the division under the personal command of Brigadier- General Sir J. Malcolm and myself, and which I am happy to inform you was attended with complete success. The enemy in the pettah made a very trifling resistance; the promptitude and energy, however, with which the attack was made by the troops under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Fraser of his Majesty's Royal Scots, reflect high credit on him and all the officers and men employed. Our loss has been trifling; Lieutenant Bland of the Royal Scots is wounded. We are now in complete possession of the pettah, and the superintending engineer is employed in erecting a mortar battery to bombard the fortress." Extract from Brigadier-General Doveton's despatch, dated 20th March:-Yesterday evening a desperate and unexpected sally from the fortress was made upon an advanced post of our troops in the pettah; and it is with extreme regret I have to add that Lieutenant-Colonel Fraser, of his Majesty's Royal Scots, who had been appointed by me to command in the pettah, was killed when in the act of gallantly rallying the party, and keeping the advance in their position. The enemy, however, were immediately driven back, and compelled to retire again into the fort. Our loss on this occasion amounts to one field-officer kitled; one subaltern, and five rank and file wounded."

Extract from an order issued by Brigadier-General Doveton, on the occasion of the assault of the pettah of Asseer:- Cl Camp, Pandah, 24th March, 1819. " The Brigadier-General having expressed generally his sense of the good behaviour of the whole of the officers and troops composing the column of attack, it only remains to notice distinctly the distinguished merits of the late Lieutenant-Colonel Fraser, of Major McLeod, Dep. Quarter-Master-General, of LieutenantColonel Pollock, second in command, and of Captain Wetherall, commanding his Majesty's Royal Scots. " The Brigadier-General will feel high satisfaction in bringing the merits of the whole to the notice of superior authority. (Signed) " GEO. CADELL, " His Excellency Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Hislop, Bart., G.C.B., publishes with great satisfaction, for the information of his Majesty's forces on the establishment of Fort St. George, the following extract of a report from Brigadier-General Doveton, C.B., commanding the Hydrabad subsidiary force:- "The conduct of the detachment of his Majesty's Royal Scots, under the command of Captain Wetherall, and of his Majesty's 30th foot, under Major Dalrymple, during the siege of Asseer, has been most exemplary, and such as to reflect the most distinguished credit on their several commanding officers, as well as the whole of the officers and men composing those detachments. " By order of Lieutenant-General " Sir THOMAS HISLOP, Bart., G.C.B. (Signed) "E. J. M'GREGOR MURRAY, .. Lt.-Col, Dep, Adj.•Gen. H. M.'s Forces:'

On the 21st December, 1819, the battalion marched from Wallajahbad to Trinchinopoly, where it arrived on the 11th January, 1820. At this station it remained until the 4th June, 1824, when it proceeded to Madras to embark for Calcutta, where it arrived on the 10th October, having sailed from Madras in September of that year; and towards the latter end of which it was marched to Barrackpore, for the purpose of quelling a serious mutiny amongst the Company's native troops at that place, the nature of which it is not necessary to notice here. After the performance of this painful duty, the battalion returned to Fort William, where it remained quartered until the middle of January, 1825, when, on a reinforcement being required for that part of the Indian army which was employed against the Burmese empire, under Brigadier (now Major-General) Sir A. Campbel1, it, as well as his Majesty's 47th regiment, received orders to proceed to Rangoon. It accordingly embarked at Calcutta, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Armstronge, on the 15th of that month for Rangoon. The 47th regiment had embarked previously for the same destination, which regiment, with the flank companies of this battalion, having joined • Now Colonel Sir Richard Armstrong. K.T.S., and since exchanged into the 26th regiment. 168 SERVICES OJ' THE 1825., the British army assembled at that place, BrigadierGeneral Sir A. Campbell considered himself sufficiently reinforced to warrant his making an advance into the enemy's country, and a forward movement upou Prome ; which, after some necessary dispositions had been completed, leaving troops for the defence of Rangoon, and driving the enemy from their remaining position in its vicinity, was commenced on the 12th of February, 1825. From the nature of the country the army had to march through, and from the want of sufficient means of transporting the military stores necessary to accompany it, the General was obliged, in making this movement, to send a part of his force by land, while another part proceeded in boats up the river Irawaddy. To that part of the force which formed the land column, which was under the Commander-in-Chief himself, the two Bank companies of this battalion, under the command of Captain Tenison, were attached, and formed the advanced guard of it. This column proceeded along a narrow and difficult path, tending obliquely towards the Irawaddy river, marching through the provinces of Lyng and Sarrawah. On the 17th it reached Mopbi. where the enemy had assembled a force of 2000 or 3000 men in an old Peguan fort, and where they shewed some determination to resist; but this was of short duration, as the Burmans Bed at the approach of the column. From Mophi the column continued its progress, uninterrupted by the enemy, to the river Lyng, which it forded on the lst of March at Thaboon; and on the 2d arrived at Sarrawah, on the Irawaddy, where its junction with the water column had been intended.

During the progress of the water column. under the SECOND BATTALION. 169 command of Brigadier-General Cotton, of the 47th 18t6. regiment, several of the enemy's stockades were destroyed by it, with little resistance on their part, until it came within sight of Donabew, where the Burmans, amounting to about 15,000 men, were strongly intrenched. This post consisted of a series of formidable stockades, extending nearly a mile along the banks of the Irawaddy. There being no part of this battalion with the water column, at this period, it is not required to enter into any detailed account of the gallant, although unsuccessful, attack made on this place. When intelligence reached Sir Archibald Campbell of the failure of the attack at Donabew, he resolved to retrace his steps and concentrate his force, for the reduction of this formidable position. He accordingly returned to Sarrawah, which he had left with a part of his force, and here the army crossed the Irawaddy by means of canoes and rafts; but which was not effected in less than five days, owing to the insufficiency of the craft employed. The head-quarters were then established at Henzada. After halting two days at this place, to prepare carriage for stores, the army resumed its march along the right bank, and came before Donabew on the 25th. A communication was opened with the water column on the 27th, and both divisions zealously cooperated for the reduction of the place. Batteries, armed with heavy artillery, were constructed without delay. During the progress of these operations some spirited sorties were made by the enemy: and on one occasion seventeen elephants were sent out, each carrying a complement of men, supported by a body of 170 infantry; but the result of this attempt soon proved the futility of it against British troops. On the 1st the mortar and enfilading batteries were opened, and the breaching batteries on the following day; shortly after which it was discovered that the enemy had deserted the place, and were in full retreat into the jungles. The intrenchments were immediately taken possession of, and considerable stores, both of grain and ammunition, as well as great numbers of guns, of various descriptions, were captured. The loss of the flank companies at this place was only one rank and file wounded. The sudden retreat of the enemy was occasioned by the loss of their general-, who was killed by the bursting of a shell.

Immediately after the fall of Donabew, Sir A. Campbell renewed his march towards Prome, and was again at Sarrawah on the 9th April, having recrossed the Irawaddy at this place on the 7th. There he was joined by the column of reserve from Rangoon, consisting of the battalion companies of the Royal Regiment, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Armstrong, and a regiment of native infantry, with a supply of elephants; the whole under the command of Brigadier-General M'Creagh. With this reinforcement he now pushed forward; and the Burmans falling back as he advanced, he reached Prome, without the necessity of firing a shot, on the 25th April. Upon the first appearance of the British army before Prome, the city, although strongly fortified, was deserted, and in part burnt. From this period until the month of August the army remained inactive, • Maha Bandoola, SECOND BATTALION. 171 the wet season having set in shortly after its occupation 18i5. of Prome, during which time no opportunity was omitted of entering upon spcific negotiations with the Burman government. But in consequence of the General having received intelligence, in the month of August, of the enemy approaching with a considerable force towards the British position, a reconnoissance was ordered on the 13th up the river in a steam-boat, under Brigadier-General Cotton, with fifty men of the Royal Regiment. The enemy was discovered on the 15th August, at Meeaday, on the left bank of the river, about forty miles from Prome, displaying a force which was estimated at between 16,000 and 20,000 men, and who appeared all armed with muskets. During the progress of the reconnoitring party, the Burmans opened a battery of sixteen guns, of different calibre, upon it, from 4 to 6~pounders; but the width of the river being at least 1500 yards, their shot fell short. They had also a small force on the right bank of the river. The reconnoitring party returned to Prome on the 16th. The menacing aspect of the Burman force was, however, suddenly changed to specific demonstrations on the 6th September, by an inclination on the part of its commander to that effect, which was readily met by the British General; and, after some preliminary arrangements, it was decided that negotiations should be entered into for a termination of hostilities. An armistice was accordingly agreed to at Meeadayon the 17th, and conditions of peace proposed by the British Commissioners, appointed for that purpose to the Burman government, by which a large portion of territory was to be ceded, and two scores of rupees paid as an indemnification for the expenses of the war; that there should be a cessation of hostilities until the 17th October, and a line of demarcation drawn between the two armies -, The armistice was further prolonged to the 2nd November. But when these conditions were submitted for ratification at the court of Ava, they only produced the utmost indignation, and a determination instantly to resist their invaders and prosecute the war. Nothing remained, therefore, but a further appeal to arms. Accordingly hostilities recommenced on the 16th November, and the first offensive movement made by Sir A. Campbell, was an attempt to drive the enemy from an advanced position which they occupied at Wattigaon, about twenty miles from Prome ; with this view, three separate bodies of native infantry were ordered to march on this position and make simultaneous attacks upon it.

The result of this attempt, however, proved disastrous, the Burmese being in greater force than was anticipated, and the troops sent to dislodge them quite insufficient to contend against such considerable odds. The consequence was a retreat upon Prome, attended with considerable loss in officers and men. This reverse fortunately inspired the Burman generals with a high but false idea of their own power, and induced them to advance from their position to that of the British commander, with their whole force, amounting to between 50,000 and 60,000 men, who feeling confidence in his army, although numerically so inferior when compared with that of the enemy, determined to await their ap- proach and avail himself of any favourable opportunity that presented itself of attacking them; however, after waiting for several days the expected appearance of the Burman force, General Campbell resolved to make an attack upon every accessible part of their line to the east of the Irawaddy, from a commanding ridge of hills to two villages, about eleven miles north-east of Prome. The enemy's army was divided into three corps, all strongly stockaded, and occupying positions of difficult approach. Previous to coming to this decision the General had found it necessary to establish a post to prevent the enemy's endeavours to intercept his communication with Rangoon, and cut off his supplies from that place; for which purpose a detachment, consisting of one hundred men of the Royal Regiment, and an equal number of native infantry, under the command of Captain Deane of the former, were stationed at Padoun-Mew,a few miles below Prome on the Irawaddy. The detachment was supported by a division of the flotilla on the river, under Lieutenant Kellett of the Royal Navy. This party was repeatedly attacked by the enemy in great force.

Sir Archibald Campbell, in his despatch, says, " The meritorious conduct of both officers and men, as detailed in the enclosed copies of letters from Captain Deane, will, I am certain, obtain for them the approbation of the Right Honourable the Governor-General in Council." Copy of a report from Captain C. Deane, commanding detachment, to the Adjutant-General of the forces serving in Ava; dated Padoun, November 20th, 1825:- " I have the honour to report, for the information of the Commander of the Forces, a brush which took place between the party under my command and the enemy this morning. " In the early part of the morning the fog was so thick as to preclude our seeing anything in our front, and on its clearing up, I discovered, by means of a reconnoitring party, that the enemy were in considerable force on the edge of the jungle in front of my left, and shortly after I discovered them marching in three columns across my front, for the attack of my right, left, and centre, their main object being evidently to gain the right of the village. I, consequently, detached a party to turn their left, and had, in a few minutes, the satisfaction to observe that column retiring in confusion, and with considerable loss. I then moved forward with the remainder of my party, to attack their centre, which also retired in confusion, after a very few rounds: during this time, their right. was engaged with a strong picquet, which I had placed to dispute the passage of a bridge on the left of the village,-this they effectually did. In both the defence of my centre and left, I was much indebted to the prompt assistance afforded me by Lieutenant Kellett, R.N. " The enemy's force consisted of two gilt chattahs, and about eight hundred men, armed with muskets and spears, with two or three jinjals; their loss, I conceive to have been about twenty-five or thirty men killed. We had not, I am happy to say, a single man wounded. The enemy, however, from the great extent of the village, succeeded in setting it 'on fire at both ends; but very little damage was done, as we extinguished it almost immediately. The rajah and all his attendants deserted the place the moment the firing commenced; he has, however, just returned, and appears much more composed, and highly delighted with the result."

Copy of a report from Captain C. Deane, commanding detachment, to the Adjutant-General of the Forces; dated Padoun, November 25th, 1825 :- " I have the honour to report, for the information of the Commander of the Forces, another affair which we have had with the Burmese this morning. " A little before day-break we had embarked twenty men of the Royals and thirty sepoys of the 26th Madras native infantry, in the light row-boats, intended to co-operate with Lieutenant-Colonel Godwin's, on the opposite side of the river. They were just in the act of shoving off from the shore, when the enemy, to the amount of 5000 or 6000, made a rush at our works, howling most horribly, and at the same time setting fire to the village, which they had entered at all points. We had fortunately got an 18-pounder into the battery late yesterday evening, which, added to two 12's, which we bad before, did great execution. cc Lieutenant Kellett, R.N., was at the moment shoving off with the row-boats, but instantly returned to our assistance, with all his men, and kindly undertook the superintendence of the guns, the well-directed fire of which somainly contributed to our success. The enemy. after nearly two hours'sharp firing, retired in admirable order, carrying off great numbers of dead and wounded, so much so, that we have not been able to find more than ten or tewelve dead bodies. I am happy to add, that with the exception of one man slightly grazed in the elbow by a musket-shot, we have not a man either killed or wounded. The rajah's house was very early in flames, and is burnt to the ground; indeed, I may almost say, the village is completely destroyed. The guns in the boats were also of the greatest assistance in scouring the village with their grape. We· got possession of one jinjal and three muskets. The enemy appeared to have several mounted men, but I cannot say what they were."

Copy of a report from Captain C. Deane, commanding detachment, to the Adjutant-General of the Forces; dated on the river, near Prome, November 26th, 1825 :- " I have the honour to report, for the information of the Commander of the Forces, that the enemy appeared in great force this morning at day-break all along our front, and had a good deal of skirmishing with the picquets, but we could not succeed in drawing them within musket-shot of our works. They are all armed with muskets, and have a great many jinjals, and two or more guns, with which they annoyed us very considerably, having taken up a position in the woody part of the village. from whence they opened a musket fire on the boats, From this I determined to dislodge them, and sent out a strong party for that purpose; these came close upon them, and drove them out, with, I have every reason to believe, considerable loss. They are, however, by no means discomfited, and are, I understand, determined to intrench themselves round us, and make regular approaches, as their orders are peremptory to carry the place. In confirmation of this, a number of their intrenching tools were left behind by the killed and wounded. Our only casualty this morning, I am happy to say, is one lascar severely, but not dangerously, wounded. The shot first grazed the jaw-bone, entered the shoulder, and came out under the arm-pit. From one of the prisoners taken this morning whom I have, by this opportunity, forwarded to Major Jacksou, I learn there are absolutely 5500 men now here, and that a further force is hourly expected down from Puttow-down, where, he says, the Setahwoon now is." After leaving four native regiments for the defence of Prome, the General marched early on the morning of the Ist December against the enemy's left flank: during this movement the flotilla, under Sir James Brisbane, on board of which the battalion companies of the Royal Regiment were embarked, diverted the attention of the enemy from this attack by a cannonade upon another part of their position, and otherwise cooperating with the land force. Upon approaching the point of attack intended, near the Nawine river, by the General, the force was divided into two columns the right, under Brigadier-General Cotton, proceeding along of the left bank of the river, came in front of the enemy's intrenehments, consisting of a series of stockades, covered on either flank by thick jungle, and by the river in the rear, and defended by a considerable force, of whom 8000 were Shans, a people of Laos, under their native chiefs. The post was immediately stormed. The attack was made by Lieutenant-Colonel Godwin, with the advanced guard of the right column, consisting of his Majesty's 41st, the flank companies of his Majesty's Royal-, and 89th regiments, supported by the 18th Madras native infantry, and the stockades were carried in less than ten minutes. The enemy left 300 dead, including their general, Maha Niow and all under the command of Captain Harvey, their stores and ammunition, and a considerable quantity of arms Were taken." The left column, under the Commander-in-Chief, which had crosaed the riverlower down, came np as the fugitives were retreating, and completed the dispersion of the Burmese army. The loss of the flank companies in this action was l serjeant, and 2rank and file, killed; Ensign Campbell, and 5 rank and file, wounded. Ensign Campbell died of his wounds next day.

Following up this advantage, the General was next determined to attack some heights- occupied by the centre of the enemy's lines, which was not effected without considerable difficulty and some109s, but which proved quite successful, the Burmans being driven from all their stockades and intrenchments. On the 4th December the division under Brigadier General Cotton, which this battalion had now joined from the flotilla, proceeded across the river, and drove the left wing of the enemy, not only from their post upon it, but from a strong stockade about half a mile in the interior. The enemy were dispersed with severe loss in killed and prisoners, and their defences set on fire. In these operations the Brigadier was ably assisted by the flotilla under Sir James Brisbane.

The following is an extract of a despatch from Brigadier- General Cotton to Sir A. Campbell on this occaSlon :- " This operation was performed in conjunction with the navy and flotilla, and I am happy to add, was attended with the most complete success. The enemy retired from their stockades on the river from the ltiL severe fire from howitzen and some rockets, ably directed by Lieutenants Paton and Seaton.of'the Bengal artillery; but on taking possession of them, it was discovered they had a stockaded work about half a mile in the interior, completely manned and occupied by guns. Brigadier Armstrong, Colonel Brodie, and Colonel Godwin immediately moved upon its centre and right, and I took the Royals to the left, and the work was carried instantly, the enemy leaving 300 dead on the field, and dispersing in every direction. I have sent in several prisoners, and 300 to 350 muskets were broken by my men, having been abandoned by the enemy. I have set fire to the whole of their defences; and have only to add my warmest acknowledgments to Brigadier Armstrong who commanded the advance, to Colonel Brodie who had charge of the light companies, and Colonel Godwin who commanded the reserve, and to every officer and man who was engaged. I am happy to say this service was performed with the' trifling loss of one man killed, and four wounded." The immediate result of these successes was the retreat of the enemy from all their positions near Prome.

After the defeat of the Burmese army near Prome they retreated upon some strong positions along the river Irawaddy from Meeaday to Paloh. To drive them from these positions the General divided his force into two divisions, one to take an inland direction under his personal command, and the other to proceed along the river ~nder the command of Brigadier-General Cotton, supported by the flotilla, on board of which this battalion was re-embarked on the 11th. The General marched on the 9th December to Wattigaon, but owing to a heavy fall of rain and other obstacles he did not reach the neighbourhood of Meeaday, which however the enemy had previously abandoned, until the 16th, when he came in communication with the other division under Brigadier-General Cott011, and the flotilla. On the 19th the General fixed his head-quarters at Meeaday; the column under Brigadier- General Cotton proceeding on to the enemy's stockades near Palho, which they had also abandoned. Notwithstanding the strong current which the flotilla had to contend against, it still continued to advance up the river. The company now retreated to Melloon, situated on the right bank of the Irawaddy. On the 26th December the enemy sent a flag of truce to the General, expressing a wish to conclude a peace, and proposing that the leaders on both sides should meet to determine its conditions. On the part of the British army Lieutenant-Colonel (now Colonel) Tidy, (the Deputy Adjutant-General to the force,) and Lieutenant Smith of the Royal Navy, were selected for this duty; the army in the mean time marching on Melloon. After some unimportant preliminary discussions, it was agreed that a conference should take place between the chief British and Burman authorities 011 the river between Patanagoh and Melloon. The result of this agreement was, that conditions of a peace were settled, on nearly the same terms as those before proposed by the British, and only required the ratification of the Burman sovereign. In the mean time a cessation of hostilities until the 18th January, was settled, and a free intercourse prevailed between the two armies. On the 6th January, 1826, a boat arrived in eight days at Patanagoh from Ava, with letters from Dr. Sandford, and Lieutenant (now Captain) Bennet" of the Royal Regiment; these officers left Prome for Rangoon on sick certificate, and feU into the enemy's hands a little below Padoun, The conditions of the peace not having been ratified on the 18th, the Burman commissioners requested a further suspension of hostilities for six or seven day.; this, being considered a mere subterfuge, was at once refused. "They were told that if they evacuated their position at Melloon by sun-rise on the 20th and withdrew towards Ava, hostilities would not be recommenced, and the British force would halt wherever the ratified treaty should be received." The enemy having declined the acceptance of this proposal, hostilities recommenced on the' morning of the 19th, by a cannonade of twenty-eight piece'S of ordnance on the enemy's position, under cover of which an attack was directed against the Burman force assembled near Melloon, which was executed with the greatest gallantry, and the enemy completely routed; with an inconsiderable loss on the part of the assailants. When the accounts of the capture of this place reached the Burman capital, it created the utmost consternation, and induced the Burman government again to renew overtures of a pacific tendency; but this did not prevent the advance of the British army, which directed its march upon Pagahm, where the enemy's force was collecting. On the 8th February the British army reached the village of Yapang, where, on a reconnoissance being made, the enemy was discovered about five miles in advance, on the road to Pagahm, amounting to about 16,000 men. On the following day an action took place between the two armies; but in this instance the Burmese abandoned the system of combating behind barriers, and encountered the British force in the open field. The result was, as might be expected, a total defeat of these barbarians, with great slaughter, in a contest which lasted for five hours, and with a trifling loss on the part of their opponents.

The war was now evidently coming to a cloee, and it only remained for the British General to march upon the capital, which he did, after halting two or three days at Pagahm. When he had arrived within four days' march of Ava, the Burman Commissioners met him with a ratification of the original terms of peace, which was concluded on the 24th February, 1826. The following is an extract from General Orders, issued by the Governor-General of India, after the conquest of Ava:- "While the Governor-General in Council enumerates, with sentiments of unfeigned admiration, the 13th, 38th, 41st, 89th, 47th, 1st or Royals, 87th, and 45th regiments, the Honourable Company's Madras European regiment, and the Bengal and Madras European artillery, as the European troops who have had the honour of establishing the renown of the British arms in a new and distant region, his Lordship in Council feels that higher and more justly-merited praise cannot be bestowed on those brave troops, than that, amidst the barbarous hosts whom they have fought and conquered, they have eminently displayed the virtues, and sustained the character of the British soldier." On the 5th March the troops commenced their return, the greater part, with which was this battalion, proceeding by water to Rangoon, where it arrived on the 25th March. After remaining there a few days, the head-quarters and first division, under LieutenantColonel Armstrong, embarked for Madras, where they landed on the 18th May. The second division, under Captain (now Major) L. M'Laine, landed there on the 19th June following. The battalion was encamped near Madras until 'the beginning of July, when it marched to Bangalore, and there remained stationed until July, 1830, when it was ordered to Arnee, all a preparatory measure previous to ita embarkation and return to England. From Arnee it marched to Marmalong bridge, about seven miles from Madras, where it was encamped. On the 21st March, 1831, it was ordered to Fort St. George, where it remained quartered until it finally quitted India, on its return to Great Britain, after a servitude in that country of nearly twenty-four years. The first division of it embarked at Madras for England on the 29th January, 1831, and was followed by others on the 21st March, 3d June, 16th June, 9th July, and 5th September. The head-quarters, under Major M'Laine, arrived at Plymouth Sound on the 11th October, and on the 26th of that month it disembarked at Chatham. On the 14th January, 1832, the last division disembarked at Chatham, previous to which the battalion, under the 184 SERVICES OF THB SECOND BATTALION. ~. command of Lieutenant-Colonel G. A. Wetherall, had ~.,. embarked at that place for North Britain, where it at ,{. '.-. present remains quartered. Whilst the battalion lay encamped near Marmalong Bridge, the following General Orders, by the Madras Government, were issued :- .. Fort sr, George, Feb. 25, 1831. " GENERAL ORDERS BY GOVERNMENT. " The Right Honourable the Governor in Council cannot permit his Majesty's Royal Regiment to quit India, after forming a part of the army of this presidency for twenty-three years, without publicly recording his high sense of its distinguished services. " During the Mahratta war, the Royal Regiment was more than three years in the field. " It nobly maintained the character of British soldiers at the battle of Maheidpoor; and after gallantly sharing in other conflicts of that eventful period in the Peninsula, it embarked for Rangoon, and assisted in maintaining the honour of the British arms, and in establishing peace with the Ava dynasty. " The Right Honourable the Governor in Council has only further to add, that the conduct ofthe officers and men of his Majesty's Royal Regiment, when in garrison, has been such as to meet with the entire approbation of Government, and that his best wishes for their continued welfare and fame will accompany them in whatever part of the world the national interest and honour may call for their services." . Gen. Stewart of Gartb.